Fig. 1.1 -- Cebuano kulintang found in Antiquera, Bohol 

Fig. 1.2 -- Cebuano chile (say-lee) found in Ginatilan, Cebu 

Fig. 1.3 -- Playing style of the chile 

Fig. 3.1 -- Example of smaller harp made by Mr. Abecia at Lagtangon, Maribojoc, Bohol.

Fig. 3.2 -- Tiny toy harps made as souvenirs in Cagayan, Luzon 54

Fig. 3.3 -- A hollowed log harp found near Dalaguete, Cebu with a shallow depth and short width resonator box 56

Fig. 3.4 -- Harp found near Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Luzon with a wide soundboard 57

Fig. 3.5 -- A hollowed log resonator box, part of an old Bisayan harp found in Antiquera, Bohol 58

Fig. 3.6 -- Hollowed log harp found in the Central Bank Museum in Manila 60

Fig. 3.7 -- Hollowed log harp found in Guiwanan, Bohol 62

Fig. 3.8 -- Interior of hollowed log resonator seen in Fig. 3.5 65

Fig. 3.9 -- Maranao kulintang found in the Cultural Center of the Philippines Museum in Manila 66

Fig. 3.10 -- Foundation block of Bisayan harp from Maribojoc, Bohol 67

Fig. 3.11 -- Bisayan hollowed log harp made in Naga, Cebu 68

Fig. 3.12 -- Bisayan hollowed log harp found near Dalaguete, Cebu 69

Fig. 3.13 -- Rear view of Ilocano harp foundation block found near Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Luzon 70

Fig. 3.14 -- Front view of Ilocano harp foundation block made in Cagayan, Luzon 71

Fig. 3.15 -- Inside construction of Ilocano harp made in Cagayan, Luzon 72

Fig. 3.16 -- Bisayan harp found in Guihulngan, Negros showing a multi-segmented soundboard 75

Fig. 3.17 -- Harp from Naga, Cebu showing a plywood soundboard 76

Fig. 3.18 -- Inside soundboard bracing on harp made in Piddig, Ilocos Norte, Luzon 79

Fig. 3.19 -- Ilocano harp found in Paoay, Ilocos Norte, Luzon showing ornamental centerstrip made out of alternating square pieces of wood and bone 80

Fig. 3.20 -- Close-up view of Bisayan harp found near Naga, Cebu 85

Fig. 3.21 -- Slotted neck design of harp from La Libertad, Negros 87

Fig. 3.22 -- Bisayan harp found near Dalaguete, Cebu with carved floral relief 88

Fig. 3.23 -- Harp found in Cayayan, Luzon 89

Fig. 3.24 -- Bisayan harp found in Misamis, Mindanao showing an added mirror as an ornament 91

Fig. 3.25 -- Side view of the neck of a harp from Antiquera, Bohol which exhibits a dragon, a flower, and a centipede as ornamental features 92

Fig. 3.26 -- Frontal view of the neck of the same harp seen in Fig. 3.25 93

Fig. 3.27 -- Bisayan harp found in Barili, Cebu and made by the man pictured 94

Fig. 3.28 -- Bisayan harp found in Boljoon, Cebu showing a simple abstraction of a horse 96

Fig. 3.29 -- Bisayan hollowed log harp found in Barili, Cebu showing horse head with eyes and ears 97

Fig. 3.30 -- Bisayan harp found in Dumanjug, Cebu with even more detailed horse head feature 98

Fig. 3.31 -- Cast metal templador from Ilocos Norte, Luzon used for turning metal pegs 102

Fig. 3.32 -- Another example of metal templador from Cagayan, Luzon 103

Fig. 3.33 -- Bisayan templador from Argao, Cebu made of wood and brass 104

Fig. 3.34 -- Bisayan harp from Antiquera, Bohol seen in Figs. 3.25-6 showing spiral design carved in the forepillar 106

Fig. 3.35 -- Bisayan harp found near Barili, Cebu 107

Fig. 3.36 -- Ilocano harp found in CCP Museum in Manila 108

Fig. 3.37 -- Common sitting position for player of a Bisayan harp 109

Fig. 3.38 -- Bisayan harp from Misamis, Mindanao 115

Fig. 3.39 -- Ilocano harp teacher living on Panay; playing in sitting position on large harp made by craftsmen from Cagayan, Luzon 116

Fig. 3.40 -- Copy of Ilocano model made by this man from Jagna,Bohol 117

Fig. 3.41 -- Harp believed to be over 100 years found near Montalongan, Cebu 123

Fig. 4.1 -- Cutting the angular edge for the staves around the foundation block with hammer and chisel 135

Fig. 4.2 -- View showing how carved lines continue on to the foundation block from the neck after connection of joints 136

Fig. 4.3 -- Live nangka tree with fruit 137

Fig. 4.4 -- Marking gauge used to obtain correct thickness for stave to be cut 138

Fig. 4.5 -- Cutting stave from nangka with a saw; note smoothness of facing side 139

Fig. 4.6 -- Bisecting nangka board in half to form two staves 141

Fig. 4.7 -- Planing two staves at one time to make identical using thin side plane 142

Fig. 4.8 -- Pre-punching nail holes 144

Fig. 4.9 -- Adding temporary bracing to gap the two staves apart the correct width 145

Fig. 4.10 -- Temporary braces placed after staves 3 and 4 were added; notice the temporary nails used along the joint of the two facing staves 148

Fig. 4.11 -- Addition of width extension on to stave 5 149

Fig. 4.12 -- Cutting the largest sound hole into stave 5 by making a groove around the circumference with a hammer and chisel 150

Fig. 4.13 -- Laying out resonator box, forepillar and base to find correct angle of lean for the resonator box 154

Fig. 4.14 -- Cutting the staggered edges of the resonator bottom to fit the correct angle of lean on the base 155

Fig. 4.15 -- Planing block of wood for soundboard slats to be cut by Gabing 156

Fig. 4.16 -- Laying out of soundboard slats on resonator, penciled line to be cut for correct fit 158

Fig. 4.17 -- Pounding in wood wedge to tighten butt joint between first two soundboard slats; notice paper strip underneath the butt joint 159

Fig. 4.18 -- Gouging corner out of molding strip with hammer and chisel 164

Fig. 4.19 -- Gouge made into base for the molding to inset 165

Fig. 4.20 -- Cut made into foundation block for molding to inset 166

Fig. 4.21 -- Example of how rope is wound around resonator box to tighten joints; notice awl punched through the molding and box for later insertion of pasuk 167

Fig. 4.22 -- Example of pasuk and how it is glued into pre-punched hole, later the wood nail will be cut flush at the molding 168

Fig. 4.23 -- Strips of bamboo placed between forepillar and centerstrip on soundboard to keep joint tight as it is glued; frontal view of two models of harp made by Abecia 171

Fig. 4.24 -- View of Abecia making holes for strings with awl through the centerstrip and the soundboard 172

Fig. 4.25 -- Gouge made into base with hammer and chisel for the later insertion of resonator box 176

Fig. 4.26 -- Making cuts with bolo on forepillar middle portion in initial preparation of rounding into a cylindrical shape 180

Fig. 4.27 -- Using plane to smooth rounded middle portion of forepillar 181

Fig. 4.28 -- Using the scraper to shave cuts closer to the boundary between the rectangular and round parts of the forepillar 182

Fig. 4.29 -- Measuring distance between lines made with the spiral string guide 185

Fig. 4.30 -- Cutting along spiral lines with a saw preceding the carving 186

Fig. 4.31 -- Carving details of spiral rope motif on forepillar middle portion 187

Fig. 4.32 -- Detail of forepillar top ornamentation before final finishing 190

Fig. 4.33 -- Template used for neck 192

Fig. 4.34 -- Special small marking gauge used to score lines on the tight curvature of the neck 193

Fig. 4.35 -- Carving the slight embossment on the neck's top depth with a chisel 195

Fig. 4.36 -- Carving the first angular facet between the top depth and side width with a chisel 196

Fig. 4.37 -- Initial carving of the bottom facet on the side width of the neck 197

Fig. 4.38 -- Layout to determine length of neck and shoulder of tenon 198

Fig. 4.39 -- View of front of neck tenon for the neck forepillar joint 200

Fig. 4.40 -- Cutting of forepillar mortise for the neck/forepillar joint 201

Fig. 4.41 -- View of rear neck tenon for the neck/foundation block joint 202

Fig. 4.42 -- Brace and bit used to bore tuning peg hole into the neck 207

Fig. 4.43 -- Gabing using the bolo to cut wood pieces to size for tuning pegs 210

Fig. 4.44 -- Bolo is used to shape tuning peg to fit 211

Fig. 4.45 -- View of a finished tuning peg and templador 212